The 7P marketing model was originally devised by E. Jerome McCarthy and published in 1960 in his book Basic Marketing. We've created the following graphic so you can see the key elements of the 7 P marketing mix. According to Borden, when creating a marketing program that fits the needs of his company, the marketing manager must weigh the forces of behavior and then juggle the marketing elements of his mix, with a keen eye on the resources he has to work with.
Recently, Bernard Booms and Mary Bitner built a model consisting of seven P's (Booms, B. They added people to the list of existing variables, in order to recognize the importance of the human element in all aspects of marketing. They added a process to reflect the fact that services, unlike physical products, are experienced as a process the moment they are purchased. Desktop modeling tools, such as Micro TSP, have made this type of statistical analysis part of the mainstream now.
Most advertising agencies and strategic consulting firms offer MMM services to their clients. To view or add a comment, log in To view or add a comment, log in. This combination of service marketing is also referred to as the 7P or 7P model by Booms and Bitner. This service marketing combination strategy expands the original marketing combination model from four to seven elements.
While Jerome McCarthy has only defined four verifiable marketing elements, the 7 P's are an extension, so this combination of service marketing can also be applied in service companies and knowledge-intensive environments. In 1981, this combination approach to service marketing was considered very valuable and provided new insights, as a result of which the extension gained widespread acceptance in the science of service marketing. These additional elements within the service marketing combination represent a service and provide intangibility through physical evidence, the result. Next, the new elements are briefly explained one by one.
In the combination of Booms and Bitner service marketing, “people” include people who are directly or indirectly involved in trading the product or service. These are mainly customer contact employees (contact center employees, representatives, account managers, etc.). It is mainly the customer contact employees who are the face of the organization and translate quality into service. They are the providers of “services” because of their occupation or enterprise.
They include, for example, stylists, hairdressers, trainers, gardeners, lawyers, contact center employees, etc. They offer a physical service with a visible result. The physical evidence within the service marketing combination refers to an environment in which a service comes from an interaction between an employee and a customer, which is combined with a tangible product. The “Process” element of the service marketing combination represents the activities, procedures, protocols and more by which the service in question is ultimately delivered to the customer.
Because services are the result of actions for or with customers, a process involves a sequence of steps and activities to reach them. The “process” element of the service marketing combination is an essential element within the entire service marketing combination strategy. This element encompasses all activities and services in which the people involved play an important role. As a service is comprised of a chain of activities, it is important to consider the possible waiting period between activities.
Within service companies, quality and feedback are always at the top of the list so that they can serve their customers well, retain them, and improve the necessary service processes and service landscape. The prices of menu items in restaurants may vary based on unique characteristics, such as product demand, customer traffic patterns, and store business hours. This is very important, since employee behavior can directly influence the quality of service. The product may not be available in all locations, but only in a certain selection of locations.
Each restaurant adapts to the customs, cultures, gastronomic preferences and laws of the region or country in which it operates. The founder of Malaysian publisher and lifestyle company Musotrees explains why he left school for nine to five years (and his career as a biologist) to build what makes him happy. Many of the best business plans ever developed are on the shelves today because the people who created them couldn't find the key people who could execute them. The process of delivering the product to the consumer must be designed for maximum efficiency and reliability, but it can also include features that are in line with your brand, such as focusing on the environment or sustainability.
Develop the habit of continuously examining and re-examining the prices of the products and services you sell to ensure that they remain adequate to the realities of today's market. A company's packaging draws the attention of new buyers in a crowded market and reinforces value for repeat customers. It's called the seven P's of marketing and includes the product, the price, the promotion, the place, the people, the process and the physical evidence. Process or method variables included advertising, promotion, sales promotion, personal selling, advertising, distribution channels, market research, strategy formation, and new product development.
The marketing combination is a selection of marketing tools that include several areas of focus that can be combined to create a comprehensive plan. Develop the habit of staying behind and looking at every visual element of your product or service packaging through the eyes of a critical potential customer. Physical evidence includes a representation of a service, for example, brochures, company stationery, business cards, reports, company website, etc. The management of the process factor is mainly due to the perishability of services, which means that services cannot be inventoried, stored for reuse or returned.